According to the father of Artificial Intelligence John McCarthy, “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”. Artificial intelligence is simply a method of making a computer to think like humans which includes a computer-controlled robot or a software that thinks intelligently. Some of the activities that a computer with artificial intelligence can do are: speech recognition, learning, planning, and problem solving etc. Artificial intelligence is sub divided into Machine learning and deep learning. AI has been used in various field such as: gaming, natural language processing, expert systems and handwriting recognition.
Artificial intelligence is in trending in today’s context. Facebook, Google and IBM are generally dashing to push the limits of AI while huge organization like MDC, Huge, GroupM and Team one are jumping on for bot services. The market industries for smart machines is estimate to increase from $7.4 billion this year to around $15 billion in 2021, at a compound annual growth rate of 15 percent, according to BCC Research globally. Forrester predicts that knowledge-driven organization will pull in around $1.2 trillion in 2020 from over $250 billion last year, while CB Insights’ research confirms that funding for AI has been growing. The recent breakthrough in AI industry was robot name called Sophia. Sophia robot was the latest robot from Hanson Robotics. She was created using breakthrough robotics artificial technologies developed by David Hanson and his friends at Hanson Robotics in Hong Kong. Some of the companies which are using artificial intelligence in today’s context are AMAZON, TESLA, SIRI, NETFLIX etc. Amazon algorithm is so refined that with each passing year the company has gotten acutely smart at predicting what the customers wants to buy next with the help of online behavior of customer using AI. Tesla is one of the leading company in making electric cars. Tesla cars are so smart that it can predict the capabilities and also have self-driving features. Whereas Siri is Apples personal assistant where she helps to find out information, gives directions, help to send messages just by saying a voice. This has been possible due to the artificial intelligence. Netflix is widely used nowadays and it provides highly predictive technology based on films that customer watched.
Artificial intelligence is such term which depends on one idea that human intelligence can be imitated by the machine. Generally AI is divided in four types. They are:
Type I (Purely Reactive)
This is the entry level form of AI. It became aware of its surroundings and acts on what it sees. It does not know much about other things because it only focuses on thing. It can’t form a memory of past and it is created just for a specific purpose. For examples: IBM’s Deep blue which beat Kasparov at chess, Google’s alpha go which got victory over human Go champions.
Type II (Limited memory)
This type of AI collects information of past memories and adds them to its preprogrammed representation of the world. It can make proper decisions and can execute appropriate actions. For example: Self driving vehicles, Chabot’s, personal digital assistant etc.
Type III (Theory of mind)
This type of AI can understand the thoughts and emotions which affect human behavior. This can interact with others socially and behaves like a humans. For example: C-3PO and R2-D2 from the Star Wars universe, sonny in the 2004 film I, Robot
Type IV (Self Aware)
This type of AI is an extension of theory of mind. They can predict the feelings of others and are aware of their internal states. They are super intelligent and conscious. For example: Eva in the 2015 movie Ex Machina, Synths in the 2015 TV series Humans.
Some of the examples of Artificial intelligence that are used in daily life are:
⦁ Virtual personal assistant
Siri, Google Now and Cortana are all personal assistant which works on ios, android and Microsoft respectively. In brief they help to find useful information when you command them with your voice. It works with the help of AI as it recognize your voice and gives you an information as per the question asked by you. Virtual personal assistant collects a huge amount of data from a variety of sources to learn about users and be more effective to help them to organize and track their information.
⦁ Fraud Detection
Sites which send fraud email asking you if you have made a purchase on a credit card. These kind of fraud can be detected using AI. In this case computer are given very large amount of data consisting sample of fraudulent and non-fraudulent purchase and ask to learn to look for signs that a transaction falls into one category or another. Within the completion of training, the computer will able to detect the fraud transaction based on the signs and indication that it learned through the training exercise.
⦁ Online Customer support
Nowadays many sites offer a facility of chatting with customer while they are browsing but actually they don’t have a live person on line. The story here is different because in this case you are talking to a primary AI. Many of these chat support bots which respond quickly to customer but there are also bots which provides information to customer by extracting knowledge from the website.
AI is basically sub categorized in two categories: Machine learning and deep learning. Both topic are very broad field of AI. Beside all these development of technology, human brain is still more complex and advanced than any other artificial neural network. This does not mean that AI will not grow with time and who knows AI might replace humans someday.
Current scenario of AI in Nepal
In the context of Nepal, the artificial intelligence is emerging day by day. With an advancement of technology Nepal is slowly matching with the pace of neighboring country India and China. Digital literacy plays a very important role in overall development of the country and so Nepali citizen would get benefit from the natural language processing capabilities of AI systems to provide services like mobile banking, text based customer support etc. Also government can use AI to improve e-governance system and also quality of statistical data. During the recent earthquake in Nepal, the UN used its 1500 strong group of volunteers of its Digital Humanitarian Network to label the tweets coming out of Nepal as “urgent needs”, “infrastructure damage”, and “response effort.” This data was provide through an AI engine called AIDR (Artificial intelligence Disaster Response) to generate a “Live crisis Map”. As Nepal is new to AI Company named fuse machines is working on Nepali Automated Speech Recognition as one of their projects. Fuse machine is a first and only one Nepali startup based on AI. Also robot named Amy is used in restaurant called KKFC which deliver the food to the tables and greet the customers. Whereas Pari named humanoid robot is used in Nepal SBI Bank to greet and guide to the customer.
AI is really a blessing for technology industry. AI is a future of the world. We can implement AI in so many sectors. Among all of them hospital sector can be a great place to implement AI. AI robot can be a great help for Doctors and they can assist the doctors in so many ways. They can help doctors to diagnosis diseases. AI robot which can examine patient can give feedbacks to patient as well as to doctors as they have very deep knowledge of medicine. AI robot which will have a broad knowledge about medical science can prescribe medicine, help the patient, gives feedback and tell patient what they should do to make their health better. It will be of great relief for the people living in rural areas as they are deprived from the services of the high expertise doctors by introducing the AI robot in the country. As well as AI robot can be taken to any places of the country and it is only one time investment. If government can invest in the sector of medical robot then it can help thousands of people’s who are in need. Also AI robot can be useful to rescue people during natural disaster such as fire burning in the house, earthquake etc.
We can implement this idea by forming a group of people who have expertise in AI. We start with making a framework of robot which we can give to the any company that can manufacture robot. Then we should make a team to make robot learn about medicine. For that we can hire a programmer or an AI engineer. AI engineer will make robot to learn about medicine and feed knowledge with the help of Machine learning. Machine learning is simply a sub category of AI in which machine is perform to learn and after completion of learning it can give the result. In a same way a huge data and statistics of medical science is collected and then data is fetch to the machine. Data can be collected from websites, books, medical reports and all the paper related to medicine. We can use python programming language for machine learning. Python is one of the common language for machine learning as it provides good support for in-built packages and pre-trained models. In python we need to install a few python libraries: scikit-learn, Numpy and pandas. These tools are free and are designed to work together. These kind of robot will be great help to the doctors of Nepal. Also it can be taken to rural areas and provides high expertise doctor’s service to the people. However not only in medical field we can do so many other things in other fields as well with the help of AI and it’s like a deep ocean the more we go the deeper it is.
All the information mentioned in this report are obtained from the books, websites and journals. The citation and reference is given to each paragraph and line at the bottom of report respectively using Harvard referencing system. The pictures use in this report are extracted from the respective sites. AI is really a very vast topic and it’s not that easy to include all the information which AI holds. This report consist of the introduction of AI, overall scenario of the AI in the world and the current situation of AI in the country with brief explanation and examples. This report will provide a brief knowledge about AI and it will be of great help for those who have started getting hands on AI for the first time.
AI is really booming in the world with the day by day advancing of the technology in the industry. While talking about the future aspects of AI in Nepal it is surely the hot topic in the industry right now. Everybody is hassling to get their hands on machine learning and deep learning. It has a great future and it might change the overall technology scenario of the country. AI can be a great help for the government, business organization, NGOs in near future. Thus AI can be implemented in the overall development of the country and the economy as well.