Definitions of communication:
In fact, the word communication is derived from Latin word ‘Communicare’ or ‘Communico’ which means to share.
Various writers and philosophers have defined communication in their own way. Some of the definitions are as follows:
- “Communication refers to giving and taking of meaning, the transmission and reception of message.” – Denis Mcquail
- “Communication is social interaction through message.”- Gerbner
- “Communication is defined as the transmission or exchange of information or ideas or feelings by means of sound, signs or symbols.” – Neal and Brown
But each of the definitions above only gives the partial meaning of communication.
In simple words, communication is the process of sharing information. Communication process is the process of transmission or exchange of information, ideas or messages by different means. It can be verbal or non-verbal. If we have to share some information with others either we deliver it orally or we write, text i.e. we share it non-verbally. Communication process can be one way or two way. As a result, we may or may not receive the feedback of the receiver. Moreover, it can symbolic too.
For a complete communication process, various elements are involved.
Elements of communication:
- Source/sender: One who intends to convey the message is sender. Source/ sender can be an individual, group or institution.
- Encoding: Ideas from source/sender should be converted at first for the easiness in transmission. The messages/ideas are converted to transmittable symbols. Those symbols can be words, pictures, sound, gestures etc. Conversion of the subject matter into these symbols is the process of encoding.
- Transmission: One who is interested in communicating has to choose the cannel for sending then required information or ideas. They are transmitted through a medium/path i.e. paper, sound etc.
- Receiver: Receiver is the person, group or institutions who receives the messages or symbols from the sender.
- Decoding: Receiver after receiving should interpret the meaning of the message or ideas. Receiver at first converts them for complete understanding.
- Feedback: Feedback can be oral, written or non-verbal. It is the process of collecting opinions of receiver about the message or symbols. It also ensures that the receiver has received the message and understood in some sense.
- Noise: Noise refers to the disturbance in communication process. It can be semantic or technical or environmental.
Characteristics of communication process:
- Transmission of message.
- Explanation for understanding.
- Communication is dynamic process.
- Communication is continuous.
Types of communication:
As we have specified earlier, communication can be verbal or non-verbal. It can be one way or two way. But according to the number, there are four types of communication.
- Intrapersonal communication: It is communication with oneself using internal vocalization or reflective thinking. What is the point of intrapersonal communication if no one else sees it? Internal vocalization or talking to ourselves can help us achieve or maintain social adjustment. Indeed, this communication is usually unplanned and does not include a clearly defined goal.
- Interpersonal communication: It is the process by which two people exchange information, feelings, and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages. It is also called face to face communication. Mostly, it is two way. So, feedback is involved properly. Moreover, it is interactive and the channels are speech and vision. And, it involves personal choice of way of communication.
- Group communication: Group communication refers to the interaction between members of a small group of individuals. It can be both verbal or non-verbal. Generally, the leader presents information and group members give feedback. But, there is less chance of feedback than interpersonal communication. Group communication is important because it is through messages that groups make decisions, manage conflict, and build the report that is necessary to keep the group going in difficult circumstances.
- Mass communication: Mass communication is the process exchanging information through mass media on a large scale to a wide range of people. The study of mass communication is chiefly concerned with how the content persuades or affects the behavior, the attitude, opinion, or emotion of the people receiving the information.
The mediums used are radio, TV, social media, newspapers etc.
Types of mass communication:
- Public relations
- Social media
In fact, in this communication there is high rate of noise and low rate of feedback. So, it should be very effectively communicated to provide the correct information to receivers.
On the basis of objectives, types of communication are educational, international, political, development, intercultural etc.
This is the basic information about communication, its elements and types. Communication is a subject that should be known to all all. For more articles on the subject matter, follow us.
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