Introduction to TCP/IP protocols

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  • January 30, 2020
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Internet protocol

TCP/IP protocols:

Internet Protocol has a function of transferring packets of information from source to a targeted devices through the Transmission Control Protocol(TCP).Therefore, It is also know as address system of the internet. For instance, a connection is established and a 3-way handshake , when an email is sent.

Introduction to TCP/IP protocols

Application Layer:

Application layer help to provide detailed information. Similarly, it gives access to the TCP/IP environment and defines the protocols that application use to exchange data.


FTP is file transfer protocol which is used to transfer file from one system to another using user command. Similarly, This protocol provides features for controlling user access.


It provides a facility of transferring message between separate hosts. It is a basic electronic mail transport facility.


It allows the user to connect to host over a TCP/IP Network. After connecting with host, client becomes a virtual terminal and can communicate with the remote host from computer.


SSH stands fro Secure Shell which enables personal computer to log on to a remote computer and function as if directly connected to that computer.


The hierarchical decentralized naming system for computer services to the internet or private network.

Transport Layer:

Transport Layer is the part of Open System Interconnection(OSI) model for end-to-end-end communication over a network.Most importantly It provides the logical communication to Other network components and application processes on different hosts. It may provide flow control, reliable delivery, error control while transferring data between end files.

There are two main protocols  in this layer. They are:-

  1. Transmission Control Protocol(TCP)
  2. User Datagram Protocol(UDP)

Transmission Control Protocol:

While transferring data between application then TCP provides a good connection. Moreover,  This connection is a temporary association within 2 entities in different system. To regulate the flow of segments each entity should track segments coming and going to other entity, Each process should have unique address.

User Datagram Protocol(UDP):

User Datagram protocol does not confirm protection against duplication delivery. Within the lower of protocol mechanism, it enables procedure to send information to other.However,  It has very little to do and connection less.

Internet Layer:

It is for logical transmission of data packets over the internet. After that, It provides a best delivery service which is connectionless and unreliable. Some of the Internet layer are :-IP, ARP, ICMP.

Internet Layer Protocol:

This protocol describes how to route message through network and provide addressing of sender and receiver on internet. It’s delivery is not guaranteed.

Internet Control Message Protocol(ICMP):

Internet address(IP) used ICMP over a network layer for different services. It is a messaging service provider and management protocol of IP. The messages are carry Via datagrams.

Address Resolution Protocol(ARP):

It resolves IP addresses to MAC addresses. When IP is send, there should be informed to Ethernet of the final hardware address on the local Network. If  IP doesn’t find the address in ARP Cache then ARP is used to find information.Likewise, ARP translates IP address to Hardware address.

Network Acess Layer:

It provide reliable delivery which may be stream or pocket oriented. It is logical interface to network hardware. Some of the protocols are:- Ethernet, ATM, frame relay, WiFi.

Physical Layer:

It is a transmission of bit stream. Similarly, It specifies medium, signal encoding technique, data rate, connector and bandwidth.


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