Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Details

Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Details 1

Artificial intelligence (AI) brings with it a promise of genuine human-to-machine interaction. When machines become intelligent, they can understand requests, connect data points and draw conclusions. They can reason, observe and plan.

Most historians trace the birth of AI to a Dartmouth research project in 1956 that explored topics like problem solving and symbolic methods. In the 1960s, the US Department of Defense took interest in this type of work and increased the focus on training computers to mimic human reasoning.

Learning denotes changes in the system that are adaptive in the sense that they enable the system to do some task( or task drawn from the same population) more effectively the next time” -(Herbert Simon)

For example, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) completed street mapping projects in the 1970s. And DARPA produced intelligent personal assistants in 2003, long before Google, Amazon or Microsoft tackled similar projects.

This work paved the way for the automation and formal reasoning that we see in computers today.

While AI is the broad science of mimicking human abilities, machine learning is a specific subset of AI that trains a machine how to learn.

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Machine Learning in AI:

Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it learn for themselves.

 

Machine learning and deep learning are subfields of AI

As a whole, artificial intelligence contains many subfields, including:

Machine learning fuels all sorts of automated tasks that span across multiple industries, from data security firms that hunt down malware to finance professionals who want alerts for favorable trades. The AI algorithms are programmed to constantly be learning in a way that simulates as a virtual personal assistant—something that they do quite well.

“Algorithms that parse data, learn from that data, and then apply what they’ve learned to make informed decisions”

  • Machine learningautomates analytical model building. It uses methods from neural networks, statistics, operations research and physics to find hidden insights in data without being explicitly programmed where to look or what to conclude.

ML is a science of designing and applying algorithms that are able to learn things from past cases. If some behaviour exists in past, then you may predict if or it can happen again. Means if there are no past cases then there is no prediction.

ML can be applied to solve tough issues like credit card fraud detection, enable self-driving cars and face detection and recognition. ML uses complex algorithms that constantly iterate over large data sets, analyzing the patterns in data and facilitating machines to respond different situations for which they have not been explicitly programmed. The machines learn from the history to produce reliable results. The ML algorithms use Computer Science and Statistics to predict rational outputs.

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Machine learning involves a lot of complex math and coding that, at the end of the day, serves a mechanical function the same way a flashlight, a car, or a computer screen does. When we say something is capable of “machine learning”, it means it’s something that performs a function with the data given to it and gets progressively better over time.

An easy example of a machine learning algorithm is an on-demand music streaming service. For the service to make a decision about which new songs or artists to recommend to a listener, machine learning algorithms associate the listener’s preferences with other listeners who have a similar musical taste. This technique, which is often simply touted as AI, is used in many services that offer automated recommendations.

  • A neural network is a kind of machine learning inspired by the workings of the human brain. It’s a computing system made up of interconnected units (like neurons) that processes information by responding to external inputs, relaying information between each unit. The process requires multiple passes at the data to find connections and derive meaning from undefined data.  Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Details 4
  • Deep learning uses huge neural networks with many layers of processing units, taking advantage of advances in computing power and improved training techniques to learn complex patterns in large amounts of data. Common applications include image and speech recognition.

It is also important to note that deep learning requires much powerful hardware to run on (mostly GPUs are used), it takes significantly more time to train your models, and it is generally more difficult to implement compared to ML. But these are some of the compromises that you have to live with when the problem you’re trying to solve is that much more complex.

 

  • Machine learning uses algorithms to parse data, learn from that data, and make informed decisions based on what it has learned

 

  • Deep learning structures algorithms in layers to create an “artificial neural network” that can learn and make intelligent decisions on its own

 

  • Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning. While both fall under the broad category of artificial intelligence, deep learning is what powers the most human-like artificial intelligence.Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Details 5

 

A great example of deep learning is Google’s AlphaGo. Google created a computer program with its own neural network that learned to play the abstract board game called Go, which is known for requiring sharp intellect and intuition. By playing against professional Go players, AlphaGo’s deep learning model learned how to play at a level never seen before in artificial intelligence, and did without being told when it should make a specific move (as a standard machine learning model would require). It caused quite a stir when AlphaGo defeated multiple world-renowned “masters” of the game—not only could a machine grasp the complex techniques and abstract aspects of the game, it was becoming one of the greatest players of it as well.

 

“The analogy to deep learning is that the rocket engine is the deep learning models and the fuel is the huge amounts of data we can feed to these algorithms.”

– Andrew Ng (source: Wired)

 

  • Computer vision relies on pattern recognition and deep learning to recognize what’s in a picture or video. When machines can process, analyze and understand images, they can capture images or videos in real time and interpret their surroundings.
  • Natural language processing is the ability of computers to analyze, understand and generate human language, including speech. The next stage of NLP is natural language interaction, which allows humans to communicate with computers using normal, everyday language to perform tasks.

 

 

The process of learning begins with observations or data, such as examples, direct experience, or instruction, in order to look for patterns in data and make better decisions in the future based on the examples that we provide. The primary aim is to allow the computers learn automatically without human intervention or assistance and adjust actions accordingly.

Some machine learning methods:

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Machine learning algorithms are often categorized as supervised or unsupervised.

  • Supervised machine learning algorithms can apply what has been learned in the past to new data using labeled examples to predict future events. Starting from the analysis of a known training dataset, the learning algorithm produces an inferred function to make predictions about the output values. The system is able to provide targets for any new input after sufficient training. The learning algorithm can also compare its output with the correct, intended output and find errors in order to modify the model accordingly.
  • In contrast, unsupervised machine learning algorithms are used when the information used to train is neither classified nor labeled. Unsupervised learning studies how systems can infer a function to describe a hidden structure from unlabeled data. The system doesn’t figure out the right output, but it explores the data and can draw inferences from datasets to describe hidden structures from unlabeled data.

In supervised learning, training datasets are provided to the system. Supervised learning algorithms analyse the data and produce an inferred function. The correct solution thus produced can be used for mapping new examples. Credit card fraud detection is one of the examples of Supervised Learning algorithm.

Unsupervised Learning

Unsupervised Learning algorithms are much harder because the data to be fed is unclustered instead of datasets. Here the goal is to have the machine learn on its own without any supervision. The correct solution of any problem is not provided. The algorithm itself finds the patterns in the data. One of the examples of supervised learning is Recommendation engines which are there on all e-commerce sites or also on Facebook friend request suggestion mechanism.

 

  • Semi-supervised machine learning algorithms fall somewhere in between supervised and unsupervised learning, since they use both labeled and unlabeled data for training – typically a small amount of labeled data and a large amount of unlabeled data. The systems that use this method are able to considerably improve learning accuracy. Usually, semi-supervised learning is chosen when the acquired labeled data requires skilled and relevant resources in order to train it / learn from it. Otherwise, acquiring unlabeled data generally doesn’t require additional resources.

 

  • Reinforcement machine learning algorithms is a learning method that interacts with its environment by producing actions and discovers errors or rewards. Trial and error search and delayed reward are the most relevant characteristics of reinforcement learning. This method allows machines and software agents to automatically determine the ideal behavior within a specific context in order to maximize its performance. Simple reward feedback is required for the agent to learn which action is best; this is known as the reinforcement signal.Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Details 7

This type of Machine Learning algorithms allows software agents and machines to automatically determine the ideal behaviour within a specific context, to maximise its performance. Reinforcement learning is defined by characterising a learning problem and not by characterising learning methods. Any method which is well suited to solve the problem, we consider it to be the reinforcement learning method. Reinforcement learning assumes that a software agent i.e. a robot, or a computer program or a bot, connect with a dynamic environment to attain a definite goal. This technique selects the action that would give expected output efficiently and rapidly.

Machine learning enables analysis of massive quantities of data. While it generally delivers faster, more accurate results in order to identify profitable opportunities or dangerous risks, it may also require additional time and resources to train it properly. Combining machine learning with AI and cognitive technologies can make it even more effective in processing large volumes of information.

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